KASHMIR SHAKTA VIMARSHA
Pandit Jaganath Siboo
Translation Dr. Chaman Lal Raina
Names of Jagat--Dhatri
Jagaddhatri, who is verily, the Maha -Shakti has been described variously in different scriptures, related to the Shaktivad. She is described as ''Mahakali'' in the "Saankhyayana Grihya sutras". Bhavani has been given the glorious name to Maha Shakti in the "Hiranyakeshi Maha sutra". The "Vajaseni Samhita" of the "Shukla Yajurveda" is revered as "Rudra-Bhagini', the sister of Rudra, who is also adored as "Ambika" .Ambika is verily, the Mother Divinity.
She is adored as "Maha-Jwala" ,in the "Taitriyakhka-of the Narayanopnishada". Shri Jwala is the Eternal Flame. Shri Maha--Jwala is also worshipped as "Duga--Svaroopamayi Shatru Dahan Karini" It elobrates the concept of Durga being with Saguna Shakti or form, and is the destroyer of the anti divine forces. The Puranik literature glorifies Jagaddhatri as "Parvati, Mahalakshmi, Bhavani, Vaishnavi" and with other names. The Sahsranamas glorify Shakti as Tripura Sundari, Shri Rajnya, Shri Sharika, Shri Bhadrakali, ShriVarnatmika, Shri Lalita, Maha Saraswati, Maha Kali, and Shri Gayatri. The "Kalika Purana" addresses Maha Shakti as 'Kalika', which has been described in the third episode of the Sapta Shati.
While going through the pages of the Ramayana, there are various descriptions , where the Devatas invoked the Shardiya Durga, at the Sharat Ritu/autumnal season, for making Shri Rama victorious over Ravana. Shri Rama himself invoked the Vasanti Nava Durga, in the spring season for being victorious in the great war between him and Ravana. Both the Nava Durga Pujas are still current in the Hindu religion. It is a grand celebration during "Vasanti and Sharadiya Durga Puja". Vasanti puja starts from the Varsha -Pratipda, i.e. the commencement of the new year, according to the Hindu calender.The Shardiya puja commences from the Ashvin Shukla Pratipada. Kashmiri Pandits do celebrate both the Nava Durgas, with all devotion and faith in their Ishta Devis. In Kashmir invocations to the Nava Durga are being conducted at Tullamula and other Shakti Pithas of Kashmir. Even many devotees perform Homas/Yajnas either on Durga - Ashtami or Navami, reverd as Maha Navami. Every Shukla Paksha Ashtami is attributed to Shri Rajnya in the Kashmiri pandit families. The tradition stands as: Kashmiri Pandit families around the globe remain vegetarian on Ashtamis. Such is the influence of Shri Rajnya Devi of Tullamula with her Vaishnavi Tattvas in the psyche of Kashmiri Pandits.
Kalika/Kali plays the double role of Bhogha and Yoga. The abode of Mahakali is at the Fateh Kadal, where her abode is said to be in a hidden spring, on the bank of the river Vitasta(Jehlum), in between Fateh Kadal and Zaina Kadal. A wall annointed with Sinduur is said to be the Pranali of the sacred spring there. She is revered as BhadraKali, in the hilly area of Handwara.
The Devi Bhagwat speaks of "Adya Shakti",who is the very source of Brahma--Vishnu --Shiva, and works as an integral part of Brahmi --Vaishnavi-Shivani. All the three constituents of the Primal/Adya Shakti, work in the cyclic order of creation, sustenance and merger. A nice expositon has been given by Brahma in the "Ratri Sukta" of the Markandeya Purana, where Lord Brahma invokes Adya Shakti, who is the Yoga Nidra of Bhagawan Vishnu, only for the sake of his own survival. Since Vishnu was in his Yoga Nidra,two ferocious Asuras--Madhu and Kaitabha were eager to kill Brahma, who was just born from the navel root of Vishnu. It was the moment, when creation took place. Brahma addresses Maha kali in the following manner:
"Yaya Tvya Jaga Srishta Jagat-Patayti yo Jagat
Sopi Nidra Vasham nitah Kastvam Stotum-iheshvara."
Brahma addresses Maha Kali as visualized by him, in the Ratri Sukta:
"Myself as Srishta--the creator and Vishnu as the sustainer of this universe is under the spell of your Yoga nidra, Who else is capable of invoking you.Yoga maya Maha Kali! You are "Svaha and Svadha", you are "Vashatkar'. You are Moha and you are Mahamaya."
The spontaneous cry of Brahma is an invitation to the Primal sound OM/AUM to create a Spanda/vibration in the Yoga Nidra of Maha Vishnu, so that Vishnu could protect him (Brahma),from the two Asuras. This is the secret of the Ratri Sukta. The Yoga Nidra of Vishnu teaches that Mahamaya even puts Vishnu within her Moha, who gets deluded in that slumber, which needs to be aroused through an invocation to the Maha Kali aspect of the Jagaddhatri.
"Ekaivaham Jagatyatra Dvitiya Ka Mamapara
Pashyaita Dushta Mayyaiva Vishyanto Madvibhutayah "
She is Ajanma--not born ,but the Primal cause of the Maha tattvas. She is the Reality, an infinite consciousness,and the ultimate Divinity, who sprinkles the Maatri Amrita-- Mother's elixir of life to her children.Durga Saptashati explains this very thought through her Nine manisfestations. Suratha the King, was humiliated by their own men and thrown out their kingdom by the rival king, Samadhi the Vaishya, was also thrown out by his own kith and kin, still both of them were wandering to see if they would again be exalted to their own positions,and happened to be too attached with their own persons. Their meeting in the hermitage of the Medha Rishi was a Divine intervention to explain the mystery about the Jagadhatri as Maha Shakti with her various manifestations.
" Devanam Karya Siddyertham Avirbhavati Sa Yada.
Utpanneti Tada Loke Sa Nitya Api Abhidhiyate."
She descends and takes the female form for the protection of Devatas. Though She is Eternal,yet She is said to be born again and again. She assumes forms for higher reasons of accomplishing the work of the noble.
To be concluded------
Pandit J.N. Siboo (1919--2001), served as a senior teacher. Later, promoted as Head Deptt of Sanskrit & Hindi, Govrnment Oriental College, Srinagar. Authored "Jyestha Pradurbhava" in Sanskrit with Hindi translation. He authored a series on Kashmir Shaivism, published in MADHYMA-PATRIKA Hindi Journal. Before migration to Mumbai, he was associated with the Shri Roopa Bhavani Sharda Peeth Research institute, where he completed the Kashmir Shakta Vimarsha. He would also write for Hindi Section of Koshur Samachar. He has written on the Bijaksharas of the Shakti tradition of Kashmir. He was awarded the Central Hindi Directorate Award, under Ministry of Human Resources, for Kashmir Shakta Vimarsha.
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I wold like to know --Is Vimarsha the name of SHAKTI--Sharika Bhagwati of Kashmir.
Added By Vibhasa Raina